Manganese (IV) Oxide 500g
Manganese (IV) Oxide (500g)
Manganese dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula MnO2.
This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules. The principal use for MnO2 is for dry-cell batteries, such as the alkaline battery and the zinc–carbon battery. MnO2 is also used as a pigment and as a precursor to other manganese compounds, such as KMnO4. It is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, for example, for the oxidation of allylic alcohols. MnO2 is α polymorph that can incorporate a variety of atoms (as well as water molecules) in the “tunnels” or “channels” between the manganese oxide octahedra. There is considerable interest in α-MnO2 as a possible cathode for lithium-ion batteries.
Several polymorphs of MnO2 are claimed, as well as a hydrated form. Like many other dioxides, MnO2 crystallizes in the rutile crystal structure (this polymorph is called pyrolusite or β-MnO2), with three-coordinate oxide and octahedral metal centres. MnO2 is characteristically nonstoichiometric, being deficient in oxygen. The complicated solid-state chemistry of this material is relevant to the lore of “freshly prepared” MnO2 in organic synthesis. The α-polymorph of MnO2 has a very open structure with “channels” which can accommodate metal atoms such as silver or barium. α-MnO2 is often called hollandite, after a closely related mineral.
Electrolytic manganese dioxide
Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used in zinc–carbon batteries together with zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. EMD is commonly used in zinc manganese dioxide rechargeable alkaline (Zn RAM) cells also. For these applications, purity is extremely important. EMD is produced in a similar fashion as electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper: The manganese dioxide is dissolved in sulfuric acid (sometimes mixed with manganese sulfate) and subjected to a current between two electrodes. The MnO2 dissolves, enters solution as the sulfate, and is deposited on the anode.